Volume 12 - Issue 1

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    Assessment of improved rice varieties against the infestation of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata Lugens Stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    (Faculty of Agriculture, Eastern University Sri Lanka, 2018) K. P. A. P. Kumari, R. F. Niranjana ,; S. R. Sarathchandra
    Brown planthopper, (Nilaparvata lugens Stal) is the devastating pest of rice and distributed throughout the rice growing areas in worldwide. Though the resistant rice varieties have frequently been released globally, the seriousness of N.lugens is innumerable due to the coevolution strategy of N.lugens. It is also common to the Batticaloa district of Sri Lanka where the problem of N.lugens is recorded repeatedly. Thus the regular reevaluation of improved rice varieties is mandate for the proper management of N.lugens. Screening of sixty rice varieties including the varieties highly growing in the Batticaloa district was carried out at Rice Research and Development Institute, Batalagoda, Sri Lanka during yala 2017. The BPH resistance of different 60 rice varieties was assessed using conventional seed box test along with the resistant (Ptb 33) and susceptible check (Bg 380). The results showed that the rice varieties viz., Bg 94-1, Bg 366, Bg 357, Bg 374 and Bg 300 were mainly cultivated by the farmers at the Batticaloa district whereas almost all the varieties lost the unique characteristics in resisting the N.lugens. However Bg 357 and Bg 366 can fairly be recommended for the Batticaloa district as showed Moderately Resistant. Among the tested 60 rice varieties, 21 varieties viz., Bg 379/2, Bg 407H, Bg 359, Bg 304, Bg 305, Ld 371, At 306, At 405, Bg 403, Bg 310, At 354, At 309, At 311, Bg 745, Bg 38, H-4, H-10, Bg 369, H-7, Bw 453 and Bw 267-3 exhibited Moderately Resistant to BPH attack. These varieties can also be recommended to the Batticaloa district once after conducting a similar study at the Batticaloa district of Sri Lanka.
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    Effect of foliar application of Boron and Magnesium on growth and yield of green chilli (Capsicum annum L.)
    (Faculty of Agriculture, Eastern University Sri Lanka, 2018) K. D. Harris, T. Vanajah,; S. Puvanitha
    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of boron (B) and magnesium (Mg) on growth and yield of green chilli (Capsicum annum L.) cv. MIPC-1. Foliar application of Boron and Magnesium (T0) Control; (T1) B = 50 ppm; (T2) B = 100 ppm; (T3) B = 150 ppm; (T4) Mg = 50 ppm; (T5) Mg= 100 ppm; (T6) Mg = 150 ppm; (T7) B (50 ppm) + Mg (50 ppm); (T8) B (100 ppm) + Mg (100 ppm); (T9) B (150 ppm) + Mg(150 ppm) was done. The sources of Boron and Magnesium were boric acid (H3BO3) and Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4.7H2O).The treatments were laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated four times. All the agronomic practices were carried out in accordance with Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka. Maximum plant height (98 cm), number of branches (18 plant-1), number of leaves (25 plant-1), number of flowers (29 plant-1), total dry weight (66 plant-1), number of fruits (24 plant-1), and unripe fruit yield (333 plant-1) were observed with the foliar application of Boron (H3BO3) +Magnesium (MgSO4.7H2O) at 100 ppm and minimum was found in the control treatment. Foliar application of Boron (H3BO3) + Magnesium (MgSO4.7H2O) at 100 ppm increased yield by three-fold than that of control treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that combined application of B +Mg at 100 ppm was found to be effective in enhancing plant growth and fruit yield of chilli.
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    Optimization of feeding rate and pressure of Orthodox Roller in Black Tea production
    (Faculty of Agriculture, Eastern University Sri Lanka, 2018) G. Abhiram, S. Jinthushayi,; N. S. Withanage
    The objective of this study was to optimize the performance of orthodox roller (225 kg) in black tea manufacturing by varying the pressure and feeding rate at Wewassa Tea Factory, Passara. Three levels of pressure (P1 - 10 min-no pressure, 10 min-touch bar, P2 - 10 min-no pressure, 5 min-1/4 pressure,5min-no pressure and P3 - 10 min - no pressure, 3 min-1/4 pressure, 2 min - 1/2 pressure) and three levels of feeding rate to the roller (200, 205 and 210 kg) were used as treatment combinations. Currently, the factory using P1 pressure and 200 kg feeding rate for tea manufacturing. Particle size analysis, brightness, TF/TR and organoleptic properties were measured for the triplicate samples and compared with the sample prepared with the factory standard. The results revealed, there is a significant effect of pressure and feeding rate on particle size analysis, but there is no significant effect on color, ratio between theaflavins (TF), thearubigins (TR) and sensory analysis (p<0.05) The treatment combination of feeding rate 210 kg and Pressure P2 has given high amount of particle size belongs to No 3 mesh size while conserving other chemical and organoleptic parameters, thus it can be concluded that this treatment combination is the best.
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    Constructed wetland for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment
    (Faculty of Agriculture, Eastern University Sri Lanka, 2018) K. Keerthana, R. Thivyatharsan
    Water quality has become a burning issue as best quality water is needed for daily lives. The slaughterhouses functioning at Batticaloa district generate huge amount of effluent and discharge to surrounding environment without proper treatment. It pollutes the surface water and soil as well. Discharging slaughterhouse wastewater without treatment contributes to greatly degrading the aquatic environment as well as human health issues. Therefore, there is a need to treat slaughterhouse wastewater before discharging into the water bodies and soil to avoid environmental pollution and human health effects. The objectives of the study were to design, construct and evaluate the efficiency of constructed wetland for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater with special reference to the parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), nitrate, phosphate, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and pH as well as to analyze the characteristics of slaughterhouse wastewater. The wetland was constructed with the layers of coir fiber, gravel and sand with the dimension of 1m x 1m x 0.3m. Cattail (Typha latifolia) plant was used as macrophytes. The results revealed that the removal of the above mentioned parameters increased with increasing retention time of wastewater in constructed wetland. The maximum removal efficiency of constructed wetland for the parameters of phosphate, COD, BOD5, nitrate, TDS and TSS nitrate and phosphate were 85.8%, 77.5%, 93.3%, 68%, 71.3% and 88.7% respectively. It was concluded that the constructed wetland performed well for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater for the parameters of COD, TSS, TDS, BOD5, nitrate and phosphate.
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    Insecticidal activity of selected botanicals on maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais L., in stored maize grainsInsecticidal activity of selected botanicals on maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais L., in stored maize grains
    (Faculty of Agriculture, Eastern University Sri Lanka, 2018) S. Karunakaran, V. Arulnandhy
    Laboratory studies were conducted to find the effect of powdered leaf of five plant species such as lantanas or shrub verbenas (Lantana camera), neem (Azadiracta indicia), annona (Annona squamosa), Adathodai (Justicia adhatoda) and Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) along with chemical pesticide Actellic 5EC (500g/l pirimphos-methyl) against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais L., infesting maize grains in storage. Among them Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi) was found to be significantly the best compared to other treatments. It was registered that Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi) and Annona squamosa (Annona) killed 86 percentage of adult weevils by about 6th week. Furthermore, the damage was completely controlled in the grains treated with Ocimum tenuiflorum after eight weeks and almost same in grains applied with Annona squamosa. In addition, significant differences were found between the numbers of emerged weevils in different treatments. In the grains treated with Actellic, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Annona squamosa, the new emerged weevils were not observed and the appearance of newly emergrd weevils were observed in Lantana camera, Azadiracta indica and Justicia adhatoda from 6th week and it was higher in Lantana camera compared to the Azadiracta indica and Justicia adhatoda from 6th week onwards.